Grading Service: NGC
SKU: 115208
Cert Number: 1650298027

The pains of organizing a country come with years of debate, reform, and trial and error that will hopefully present an institution that sticks. For years after the United States signed the constitution, the fathers of the country struggled to settle on certain governmental aspects -which included the Judicial System. After the Judiciary Act of 1783 the people were generally happy with the current state of law and its processes. However once John Adams made it into office on the Federalist ticket, he set out to change much of what had already been established. Adams was not able to reform the Judiciary System until his last days in office when congress hurriedly passed the Judiciary Act of 1801. Upon passage, Adams quickly commissioned several circuit court judges the day before he left office in 1802, some of whom never received their commission. When Jefferson took office the following day, Adams’ undelivered commission letters for the judges in Washington County were on his desk. Outraged at the sudden and sneaky reform, Jefferson granted judgeship to six federalists and six republicans but refused the other eleven. Jefferson’s ultimate plan, however, was to repeal the Act of 1801 entirely. The president, the republican majority congress, and Jefferson’s cabinet then hastily set out the Repeal of 1802 by March and replaced the previous act with the Judiciary Act of 1802 on April 29th. This new act removed all the circuits Adams constructed, upped the Supreme Court judgeship back up to six with each presiding over the circuits, and only required the Supreme Court to meet once yearly. This controversial maneuver received criticisms across the country and some even claimed the Republican Party did this to avoid a court case that would inquire into the constitutionality of the original repeal. As time moved on and the investigation was complete, the reforms were adopted and Jefferson’s actions were ruled completely constitutional.

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