Grading Service: NGC
SKU: 117879
Cert Number: 2073551009

The international borders of the United States have been a hot topic in political circles today, but it seems they have always been a hot topic for discussion. In fact, prior to 1846 there had been several disputes between the growing United States and the countries that surrounded. Overtime however the northern border dispute had been resolved, which left room for a southern border resolution. By the end of 1848 it seemed a solution was found when the U.S. came out of the Mexican-American war victorious. As part of their spoils, Mexico handed over several thousand miles of land over, but this was not enough for congress. At this time the government and big railroads had already planned to build an elaborate railway system through the south that would require the borders to be pushed more southward. To acquire the rest of the land they wanted congress sent minister to Mexico, James Gadsden, to negotiate with Mexican President Santa Anna. Many feared the meeting would not go well since Santa Anna had now been defeated by the states twice now; instead he was very motivated to negotiate. After his losses, Santa Anna struggled to keep his station – which he had just earned back the previous decade – and refund his nearly bankrupt nation. Santa Anna knew this deal with the U.S. would enable him to win over his people again. Gadsden and Santa Anna came to the agreement that the land north of the Rio Grande was valued at ten million dollars. Shortly after the Gadsden Purchase was completed the southernmost border of the United States was set at the Rio Grande. By 1856 congress set out to assert their power over the area and approved the construction of a fort in Arizona at the Sonoita River. This fort was designed to protect emigrants from the rather volatile Apache tribe who resisted all white-settlement and was named after the newly inaugurated president, James Buchanan. Unfortunately the plans for a southern railway and the fort were never finished once the Civil War broke out four years later.

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